Laser eye surgery or LASIK is done to correct the problems with astigmatism, hyperopia and myopia.. A type of refractive surgery, it is performed by an ophthalmologist. These ophthalmologists use laser to reshape the cornea of the eye so as to improve vision. The laser eye surgery eliminates the use of eye correcting glasses. The procedure is done quite faster and depends upon the seriousness of the condition. The laser eye surgery is a painless procedure and takes about 5-10 minutes to complete. The recovery period is also faster in this procedure.
Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) : This laser eye procedure is performed to correct astigmatism, farsightedness and nearsightedness. Mild to moderate eye conditions can be treated with this procedure. Before the introduction of the LASIK procedure, PRK was the most widely used refractive surgery procedures. The reshaping of the cornea is done by using a laser. The laser produces an ultraviolet light which is a cool pulsing beam. This ultraviolet light is used on the cornea's surface rather than using it beneath the cornea.
Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty (ALK) Eye Surgery : The procedure is performed to correct the vision in those people who are having mild degrees of farsightedness and severe degrees of nearsightedness. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and take about one hour to finish. Healing after the procedure is relatively quicker than the other vision repair surgeries. ALK procedure is not so popular as compared to other laser eye surgeries.
LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) Eye Surgery : The reshaping of the cornea is done by using a laser beneath the corneal flaps. This procedure is the most popular among all the eye surgery procedures. The Excimer laser is used to improve vision, eliminates the use of eye correcting glasses and treat refractive errors. The procedure changes the shape of the cornea.
The procedure first starts by creating a thin circular flap in the cornea of the eye with the help of microkeratome instrument. The instrument is used to access the tissue lying beneath so as to repair this tissue using an excimer laser. The surgeon then marks the areas of incisions for performing the procedure. The surgeon uses special eye drops in order to anesthetize the eyes before performing the procedure. The removal of the cornea depends upon the different vision problems of the patient. The aim of the surgery in case of farsighted people is to get a steeper cornea. While in the case of nearsighted people, the aim is to flatten the cornea.
The biggest difference between the both is that in case of PRK, the removal of the epithelium (outermost corneal cell layer) is done. The removal is done prior to the surgery. The regrowth of the cell layer takes 3-5 days. Microkeratome instrument is used to create a tissue layer in the LASIK procedure. The tissue layer remains involved with the eye by means of a strip that creates a hinge. The surgeon then folds lifts and folds the flap over. The stroma is that part of the eye where the laser is concentrated inside the cornea. The flap is then folded back by the surgeon in its original position without involving no stitches. In the case of PRK, the contact lenses are worn for several weeks so as to help in the healing process. Both in LASIK and PRK, the visual outcome is excellent.
The major difference is the way of accessing the eye during the procedure. A corneal flap is created that lifts away the thick outer layer in the case of LASIK surgery. The laser is then applied beneath the tissue so as to replace the flap. While in Lasek surgery, no flap is created and the cornea's top layer is loosened and is moved aside. After the procedure, this epithelium (outer layer) is then placed carefully.
The cost effective treatment of laser eye surgery in India attracts a large number of patients from all over the world. The price of the laser eye surgery depends upon the laser equipment and the type of procedure required.