Arthroscopy and Arthroplasty of knee in India

Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure that can be performed for the diagnosis and/or treatment of joint abnormalities. It is an Outpatient procedure. It gives the doctor a clear view of the inside of the knee which helps them diagnose or treat knee problems using a tube like viewing instrument called arthroscope. During Knee arthroscopy surgery the surgeon will make a small incision and insert arthroscope into the knee which enables the surgeon to view the inside of the joint on the screen. The surgeon then investigates the problem with the knee and if required will correct the issue using small instruments with the anthroscope.
Arthroscopy for the knee is commonly used for

  • Removal or repair of torn meniscal cartilage
  • Reconstruction of torn anterior cruciate ligament
  • Trimming of torn pieces of articular cartilage
  • Repair ligaments of the joint
  • Removal of loose fragments of bone or cartilage
  • Removal of inflamed synovial tissue

There are limited risks to the procedure and outlook is good for most patients.

This differs from Knee arthroplasty or knee replacement ich is  a surgical procedure to replace the weight bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and disability and is total knee replacement

Reasons to perform Knee arthroplasty:
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Post traumatic arthritis

When is it recommended?

  • Severe knee pain or stiffness
  • Moderate but continuous knee pain
  • Chronic knee inflammation and swelling
  • Knee deformity

Surgery/Transplants Procedure
Knee Arthroscopy is performed by Out patient procedure. The type of anesthesia used varies depending on the joint being examined and the medical health of the patient

For the arthroscopy procedure anesthetic is given which will
  • Local- which numbs the knee area only
  • Regional-which numbs from the waist down
  • General-which puts patient completely to sleep

The orthopedic surgeon will begin by making a few incisions or cuts in the knee.

How it Works
A sterile solution will be pumped in to expand the knee. This helps the orthopedic surgeon to see the patient’s knee clearly and in great detail. The arthroscope will be inserted into one of the cuts and the surgeon will look around in the joint using attached cameras. The images produced by the camera will be shown on the monitor in the operating room.

Total knee replacement typically takes 60-90 minutes approximately to complete. The total time from when the patient is brought into the operating room is anesthesia is administered the procedure is completed and the patient is transported back into the recovery room is approximately 2 hours

Once the problem is located the surgeon will then insert small tools into the incisions to correct the issue. Once the surgery is completed the saline will be drained from the joint and the incisions are closed with a stitch or steri-strips(small band aids) and cover them with a soft bandage.

In Knee arthroplasty the patient is under general anesthesia( patient is under temporary sleep) or spinal or epidural anesthesia and 8-12 inch cut is made in front of the knee. The damaged part of the joint is removed from the surface of the bones,and the surfaces are then shaped to hold a metal or plastic artificial joint. The artificial joint is attached to the high bone, shin and knee cap either with cement or a special material. When fit together the attached artificial parts from the joint, relying on the surrounding muscles and ligaments to support and function

After Effects of the surgery
After surgery and once the patient starts recovering an  exercise program is gradually started that strengthens the muscles surrounding the joint and prevents scarring of surrounding soft tissues. The goal is to recover stability, range of motion and strength of the joint rapidly and safely while preventing the build up of scar tissue
The program is an essential part of the recovery process for an optimal outcome of this procedure.

Arthroscopy is essentially a low blood loss procedure and generally has few complications. But sinceall the surgeries have their share of risks. Occurance are rare though. Every surgery has the following risks. The risks are same for knee replacement like

  • Excessive bleeding during procedure
  • Infection at the site of surgery
  • Allergic reaction to anesthesia or medications administered during surgery
  • Breathing difficulties caused by anesthesia

The risks specific to Knee arthroscopy are

  • Bleeding inside the knee joint
  • Formation of blood clot in the leg
  • Infection inside the joint
  • Stiffness in the knee
  • Injury or damage to the cartilage, ligaments, meniscus, blood vessels or nerves of the knee

Risks specific to Knee arthroplasty

  • Allergic reaction to the bone cement
  • Continuous pain long after knee replacement
  • Excess scar tissue resulting in restricted movement of knee
  • Infection of healing wound
  • Excess bone forming around the artificial knee joint restricting movement of the knee
  • Instability of the knee cap resulting in painful dislocation to the outer side of the knee
  • Fracture in the bone around the artificial joint during or after surgery
  • Loss of motion and stiffness
  • Numbness in the area around the wound scar
  • Unforeseen bleeding in the knee joint
  • Wearing down of implant surfaces-components may loosen
  • The kneecap becoming dislocated
  • Ligament,artery or nerve damage in the area around the knee joint


Knee arthroscopy cost can vary substantially even within the same geographical area.

Knee arthroplasty India cost is amongst the lowest in the world. The cost of knee surgery in India is about 20% of the cost in the USA.. Low cost arthroscopic knee surgery is performed in India with well qualified surgeons and without costing you much and not compromise on the quality. The surgery is without any compromise on quality or success rate and most of the surgeons in India have super specialty academic qualifications and training in UK,USA etc. Best knee arthroplasty in India is provided in India at prices much lower than other countries comparatively.

After the surgery the patient is moved to recovery room and will be able to go home within 1 or 2 hours. Recovery from knee arthroscopy is quick compared to traditional open knee surgery. Immediately after anthroscopic surgery patients may be sleepy especially if a general anesthetic or sedation has been used. Medications are administrated to control pain. Is local anesthetic has been used there may be no pain at all immediately after the procedure. If spinal or regional anesthetic has been used there can be numbness and weakness of the extremity that gradually resolves before the patient is home. The surgical incisions are small of around 5 mm(1/4 inch) incisions on either side of the joint which are bandaged after surgery which may absorb some of the tissue drainage from these wound sites. Post the surgery the guidelines of the surgeon need to be followed carefully. The bandage should be kept as dry as possible during the first few days and removed only under the guidance of surgeon or nurse’s guidance and should notify the physician immediately if they develop unusual joint pain, swelling, redness or warmth or if they injure the involved joint.
For several days the patients will have to rest and elevate the joint which applying ice packs to minimize the pain and swelling.
Recovery time and prognosis will depend on the severity of the knee problem and the complexity of the procedure.

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