Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of blood cancer. Also known as Myeloma, it starts in the plasma cells of the bone marrow. Plasma cells are short lived antibody (protein) producing cells, derived from a type of white blood cell (B-Lymphocyte). They make different forms of proteins (antibody) that helps fight infection. Malignant transformation of plasma cells results in defective and abnormal single protein formation called monoclonal or M protein. When plasma cells become cancerous and grow out of control, they produce a tumor called plasmacytoma. If someone has only a single plasma cell tumor, the disease is called solitary plasmacytoma or if someone has more than one plasmacytoma, it is called multiple myeloma.
There is no exact cause known for the disease. However there are few risk factors associated with increased risk of multiple myeloma, these include:
Multiple myeloma is a disease that cannot be prevented as very few cases are linked to avoidable risk factors.