Stem Cells are identical biological cells, which can make different specialized cells and can split to create more Stem Cells. They are easily found in multi-cellular organisms. In full grown organisms, Stem Cells work to mend the body system, restocking adult tissues. Adult Stem Cells are normally used in medical therapies, for example in bone marrow transplantation. Stem Cells can now be artificially grown and changed into specific cell kind with features dependable on cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves.
The various parts of the brain and spinal cord have different and specific cells. Stem cell technology allows the separation and growth of neural stem cells from these regions of the cen-tral nervous system (CNS) in almost boundless numbers from a single tissue. The basic idea of the stem cell therapy is to restore and/or fix dead or diseased cells. Neural stem cell therapy is developing area specific cells that are pre-suited to the duties assigned to them once transferred into the CNS. For spinal cord indications, it is advisable to use human NSI-566 spinal cord stem cells only.
There are two fundamental styles that these cells can provide therapeutic effects:
By creating: The cells may assist in creating new circuitry
By expressing: The cells may express reasons that look after existing cells
Cerebral Palsy is the most common physical disability that may arise during pregnancy, but can also be caused by complications at birth, or following injury or illness after birth. Cerebral Palsy is a broader term for the effects of damage to a developing brain by diverse causes. Symptoms of Cerebral palsy include difficulties in walking, balance and motor control, eating, swallowing, speech or coordination of eye movements. Stem cell therapies for cerebral palsy aim to limit the damage to cells in the brain and reduce the symptoms. The brain and spinal cord contain cells called neural precursor cells, which can develop into the specialised cells of the brain. One idea is that these neural precursor cells could be transplanted into cerebral palsy patients or used to make new nerve cells in the lab to replace lost cells in the patient's brain. Umbilical cord blood stem cells can be potential treatment for cerebral palsy and support the recovery of damaged nerve cells by releasing substances that stimulate the body's own repair systems.
Paralysis is a loss of motor function in muscle groups as a result of an injury of the neuromuscular mechanism. Paralysis is a sign of an underlying condition such as paraplegia or quadriplegia. Paraplegia refers to weakness or paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body. Quadriplegia or tetraplegia refers to weakness or paralysis of all four extremities. Paralysis can be caused by spinal cord injuries (fractures, dislocations) incurred from blunt trauma, automobile and boating accidents, falls, or sports injuries. Quadriplegia is the result of injury to the brain or cervical spine or diseases of the peripheral nerves, muscles, myoneural junctions, gray matter of the spinal cord, brainstem or cerebrum. Usually, the cervical area of the spinal cord is wounded.
Stem cell treatment of a spinal cord injury is possible with allogeneic human umbilical cord tissue-derived stem cells and autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells. The adult stem cells used to treat spinal cord injuries come from either the patient's own bone marrow (autologous mesenchymal and CD34+) or human umbilical cord tissue (allogeneic mesenchymal).
Stroke is one of the main causes of adult disability around the world. Most people who suffer from a stroke are left with permanent disabilities. Stroke is a vascular syndrome of the brain. It is called a cerebrovascular disease, meaning that it involves both the brain (cerebro-) tissue and the blood vessels (vascular) within the body. There are two broad types of stroke - ischemic stroke, that are more frequent and hemorrhagic stroke. Two main strategies highlight the examination of stem cells and the cells they make as potential therapies for stroke. The idea behind the "inside the body" repair is to arouse stem cells that are already present in the brain to heal damaged tissue. The other strategy of "outside the body" transplantation has harvested, purified and differentiated stem cells transplanted into patients.