Tympanoplasty (eardrum repair) is a surgical procedure to rebuild a perforated eardrum (tympanic membrane) or the middle ear's tiny bones. The problem of the tympanic membrane may be the outcome of severe infection or from any trauma to the eardrum. There are three layers of the tympanic membrane. Both inner and outer layers have epithelium cells. The condition of perforations can be due to defects in the middle ear that includes elastic collagen fibers. The small perforations can be easily healed but in the case of larger defect, the process of healing is hindered. The reasons for perforated eardrums could be an outcome of trauma like a slap on the ear, an explosion or any object in the ear. The aim of tympanoplasty surgery is to restore the perforated eardrum and also the middle ear bones consisting of stapes, incus and malleus.
The surgical procedure can be performed by following the trascanal approach (ear canal) and starts by making an incision either through the ear or at the back of the ear. To rebuild the tympanic membrane, a graft is taken. The tragus and the temporalis fascia are the common graft sites. The surgery takes place under local anesthesia and takes about 2-3 hours to complete. The time taken usually depends upon the approach undertaken. The procedure is done on an inpatient basis and the success rate is as high as 80-90%.
The human ear is made up of three parts. The first part of the outer ear that gathers sound, then the middle ear is joined to the outer ear on every side of the head. Further deeper, there is also an inner ear on every side. In between the outer and middle ear, the ear drum stretches across the most deepest section of the ear tube. Children having a hole in the eardrum will result in perforation. This could be the result of-
The hearing is largely affected as the hole stops the normal vibration of the eardrum. The hearing can be improved and ear infections can be prevented by sealing up the hole. The improvement in the hearing depends upon the size of the hole.
Ear lobes are basically made up of soft skin and a little amount of fatty tissue. The tear of earlobe tissues is often caused either by trauma or by excessive weight. For hiding the unattractive appearance of the torn earlobe, clip-on earrings may be fitted. There are various reasons for which earlobe repair surgery is required -
The surgery can be done in a single session or stage by stage basis that depends largely on the damaged caused to the earlobe.
The surgical procedure is performed to correct the disfiguring injuries or deformities caused to the external ear. Often called as ear pinning or ear repairing, this surgery is mostly performed in children than in adults. The surgery can offer a more pleasing shape to the ears. The cosmetic surgery of Otoplasty is done to reduce the big size of the ears and also done to set ears closer to the head.
However, there are other problem that can be corrected by this surgery-
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The treatment depends on whether the hearing loss is temporary (reversible hearing loss) or permanent. The permanent hearing loss can be treated with hearing implants and devices.
The fixation of the stapes bones happens as a result of abnormal growth in the small bones of the middle ear. The proper functioning of the ear depends on the free movement of the stapes bones. The process of hearing starts by first sending sound vibrations (from the outer ear) inside the ear canal and from there the sound vibrations hit the ear drum. The movement of the ear drum causes vibrations sends the vibrations into the three tiny bones- anvil (incus), stirrup (stapes) and hammer (Malleus). The hearing (auditory) nerve is stimulated when there is a movement of the stapes bone that sets the motion of the inner ear fluids. The sound energy is then transferred by the auditory nerve in the brain that leads in sound hearing.
Otorlaryngologist can advise the use of hearing aids to increase the sound that will reach to the ear drum, provided if the hearing loss in not serious. The specialists can also advise Sodium fluoride that can slow the development of the disease. However, the most effective surgical method is Stapedectomy that improves hearing.
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