A cardiovascular disease where there is an unusual accumulation of proteins in different body organs is known as Amyloidosis. The amyloid proteins can grow in different places that include gut, kidneys, heart and nerves. This is considered as a serious condition that may cause life-threatening organ failure.
When amyloid is deposited into the kidney then kidneys are unable to filter out toxins and waste from the blood then it is known as renal (kidney) Amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is responsible for affecting the kidneys that may result into following conditions that include -
AL Amyloidosis(Primary amyloidosis): AL Amyloidosis is considered as the most common type. Light (L) chains are the name given to amyloid proteins that build up in the tissues. This type is usually not associated with any other condition but in some cases it is connected with multiple myeloma.
AA Amyloidosis(Secondary amyloidosis): In this type, amyloid protein builds up in the tissues and is termed as A protein. AA Amyloidosis is connected with a large number of serious diseases that include rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and tuberculosis. The liver, lymph nodes, spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands can also be involved.
Hereditary Amyloidosis (ATTR)(Familial amyloidosis): This is particular and rare type of Amyloidosis that can be seen in a family coming down from generation to generation. Hereditary Amyloidosis is responsible for causing eye abnormalities, motor neuropathy problems, carpel tunnel syndrome and peripheral sensory problems. Transthyretin (TTR) protein is considered as the most common subtype of hereditary Amyloidosis.
The changes in protein cause Amyloidosis which makes proteins insoluble and also results in the deposition of these proteins in tissues and organs. Usually, these proteins build up in the tissue space in between the cells.
The beginning of Amyloidosis is from the bone marrow. White and red blood, antibodies and platelets are produced by the bone marrow that is responsible for protecting the body against many infections. The body breaks these antibodies when their work is finished. Amyloidosis develops when the antibodies produced by the bone marrow cells cannot be broken down. This causes accumulation of antibodies in the blood that gradually deposits in the tissues as amyloid.
The chances of Amyloidosis condition is higher in those people who -
The symptoms depend on the affected organ. It has also been seen that with such number of symptoms, the diagnosis of the Amyloidosis becomes difficult. Some of the common symptoms are -
Amyloidosis can also result in specific groups of symptoms that are known as syndromes that include -
Physical examination and complete medical history of a patient is thoroughly diagnosed for Amyloidosis. Bone marrow, blood and urine tests are also performed. Urine and blood tests helps in detecting the amyloid proteins. Small samples of tissues (known as biopsies) and bone marrow tests are required for positively stabling the diagnosis of Amyloidosis. In order to confirm the diagnosis of Amyloidosis, biopsy or small tissue samples are taken from the bone marrow, abdominal fat and rectum. A specific type of biopsy procedure depends on patient to patient.
The condition of Amyloidosis has no cure. A doctor will recommend some treatments for suppressing the development of the amyloid-forming protein and also for managing the symptoms in a patient. If it found that Amyloidosis is associated with some other condition, then the focus of the treatment is to target the underlying condition. The specific treatment depends on which organs are affected and the type of Amyloidosis.
The cost of Amyloidosis treatment in India is substantially lower than many other developed countries of the world. The country is known for its latest technologies and medical services.
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