Glaucoma comes in the list of one of the leading causes of blindness. This common disease of the eye leads to the dysfunction of the drainage system of the eye. The disease affects both the eyes, though one eye can have more serious symptoms than the other. It has been that in many cases that glaucoma is linked with higher pressure as compared to normal pressure inside the eye. If the condition is left untreated, then it can first cause peripheral vision loss and then lately results in total blindness.
Acute angle closure glaucoma and chronic open-angle glaucoma are the two main types of Glaucoma. The other types include pigmentary, congenital, normal tension and secondary glaucoma.
The glaucoma can be caused by either another eye disease or condition which is referred to as secondary glaucoma. The different causes of secondary glaucoma are -
Drainage Implants : This surgery is used for those people who have secondary glaucoma. The surgery is also done for the children. To drain the fluids out from the eye, a tiny silicone tube is inserted.
Trabeculoplasty : To make it easy to drain the fluids out from inside the eye, a high energy laser beam is used to unclog the drainage canals. The surgical procedure reduces the pressure in the inner eye.
Filtering Surgery (viscocanalostomy) : The requirement of a filtering procedure of trabeculectomy is needed when the high-beam laser energy does not work. The removal of a tiny piece of trabecular mesh-work is done by creating an opening in the white of the eye.
Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma : This is treated as a serious medical emergency and requires the use of pressure reducing medications that are used immediately. A small hole is created in the iris with the help of laser procedure. This hole allows the flow of fluids in the trabecular mesh-work. This procedure is known as iridotomy.
The use of laser surgery has become an efficient procedure for treating glaucoma. There are many types of laser surgeries available. The selection of a particular type of surgery depends on the form of glaucoma and also the on the condition of glaucoma. The small opening in the eye tissue is created by producing a focused beam of light. The opening depends on the strength of the light beam. The laser surgery is performed on an out-patient basis.
Surgery : The aim of all the surgeries is to reduce the pressure inside the eye. The surgeries include making a drainage flap in the eye, destroying the tissue which is responsible for creating fluid in the eye, laser treatment and inserting a drainage valve. The different surgeries are performed-
Medications : A large number of medications are used to reduce the intraocular pressure. The doctor may change the medication if it is not helping in reducing the pressure.
The cost of glaucoma surgery in India is affordable as compared to other developed countries in the world. The use of trabeculectomy remains the gold standard procedure with an increasing trend toward the glaucoma drainage devices. All the hospitals in India are using the new advanced laser surgeries that helps to reduce the IOP pressure in the eye.
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